Being diagnosed with diabetes was once considered a death sentence. Once people learned they had the disease, they usually died within a few months or a few years if patients followed extreme diets. This dire situation changed after Dr. Frederick Banting and his assistant, Charles Best, discovered how to isolate insulin on July 27, 1921.
Insulin is produced in the organ called the pancreas. It is a necessary hormone required by our bodies to regulate the sugar levels in our blood. People with diabetes are unable to produce insulin or adequate amounts of insulin. Without insulin, nutrients cannot be correctly distributed to vital organs throughout the body. As a result, these organs slowly shut down until the body dies. Therefore, it is essential that diabetic people regularly receive insulin shots to survive.
At the turn of the 20th century, scientists first discovered that the pancreas was responsible for producing insulin. In tests, animals that had their pancreas removed showed common symptoms of diabetes. After this discovery, the question then became how to isolate insulin from the pancreas and how to administer it to patients with diabetes.
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In 1921, Dr. Banting and Best figured out how to extract insulin from a dog’s pancreas. They later used the insulin to treat another dog with diabetes successfully. In 1922, a more refined form of insulin was isolated from the pancreases of cattle. This insulin was then administered as shots to people suffering from diabetes. The method pioneered by Dr. Banting and Best benefits millions of people with diabetes. Dr. Banting was therefore awarded a Nobel Prize at age 32, remaining the youngest winner in the field.
What Did You Learn?
1. What is the function of insulin for our bodies?
2. How do people suffering from diabetes receive insulin using Dr. Banting and Best’s method?
1. It regulates the sugar levels in our blood.
2. They receive insulin as shots / Insulin is administered as shots to them.
Word in Use
1. diagnose vt. 診斷
be diagnosed with + 疾病 被診斷有某疾病
Jim was diagnosed with cancer, but he stays positive and will never give up easily.
2. isolate vt. 使分開／隔離
isolate A from B 將A與B分開／隔離
A high wall isolates the castle from other buildings.
3. regulate vt. 調節
The machine regulates the temperature to provide an ideal environment for the fish.
4. nutrient n. 養分
Good soil provides nutrients for plants.
5. distribute vt. 分發，分配
distribute A to B 將A分發給B
The assistant distributed the copies of the document to the participants.
1. at the turn of the century 世紀交接的時期
Queen Victoria died at the turn of the century.
2. be responsible for... 負責…
Gary is responsible for dealing with customer complaints in his company.
3. suffer from... 罹患…疾病；受…之苦
Scott suffers from insomnia because of the great deal of pressure he has at work.
＊insomnia n. 失眠
4. be awarded sth 獲頒某物
The winner of the speech contest will be awarded a scholarship.
A: I heard that the first episode of “Extraordinary Attorney Woo” achieved only 0.9 percent audience viewership. B: But by the 9th episode the audience share had reached 15.8 percent to become the most-viewed drama of the year. A: In addition to the gripping story, because the lawyer is a fan of whales, the drama features lots of whale animation. B: The scenes with the whale animation are really adorable. A: 聽說《非常律師》第一集，收視率只有0.9％。 B: 而到了第九集，收視率飆升到15.8％成為年度劇王。 A: 除了精彩的劇情，因為女主角是鯨魚迷，還有許多鯨魚的動畫特效。 B: 那些動畫鯨魚好可愛。 （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
K-drama ‘Extraordinary Attorney’ causes sensation (3/3)《非常律師》成年度劇王（三） A: Is it actually possible for an autistic person to become an attorney? B: In Florida, US, there really is an autistic lawyer. A: “Extraordinary Attorney Woo” will have allowed many people to gain an insight into autism. B: I cannot wait for the big finale next week. A: 自閉症患者真的能擔任律師嗎？ B: 在美國的佛羅里達州，真的有一位「自閉症律師」耶。 A: 藉由《非常律師》這部戲，也讓更多人認識了自閉症。 B: 我好期待下週播出的大結局喔。 （Translated by Edward Jones, Taipei Times／台北時報張聖恩）
炎炎夏日氣溫節節升高，全球暖化造成的極端氣候正在影響世界各地。自六月以來，熱浪襲捲歐洲各地，許多國家都出現了超過攝氏40度的高溫，就連台灣氣溫也是屢創新高。暑假出國如果不小心中暑的話，學會這些英文單字才能和外國人描述症狀喔！ heat exhaustion熱衰竭 熱衰竭的英文是heat exhaustion，exhaust (v)有多重意思，可解釋為「使精疲力竭」或是「用完、耗盡」，另外還有「廢氣」的意思。 We felt exhausted after a long journey. （在長途旅行後我們感到筋疲力盡。） To find the resolution, we’ve exhausted all our resources. （為了尋找解決方式，我們已經用盡了所有資源。） One of the culprits of air pollution is car exhaust fumes. （汽車廢氣是造成空氣污染的罪魁禍首之一。） exhaust的形容詞是exhaustible「窮盡的」，經常與exhaustive (adj)搞混，這裡的意思為「徹底的、完整的」，是多益測驗的重要單字，常和study／research 搭配，例如(an) exhaustive study／research「完整的研究」。 heat stroke中暑 中暑（heatstroke）比熱衰竭更為嚴重，stroke解釋為「中風」，但是要注意stroke也是strike的過去式。strike當動詞有「打，襲擊」的意思，當名詞時則是「罷工抗議」。 If someone you know shows signs of a heat stroke, first, take him/her to a shaded area. （如果你認識的人出現中暑的症狀時，首先將他移至陰涼處。） A magnitude 4 earthquake struck the island. （島上發生了一次四級地震。） 熱傷害的症狀 熱衰竭和中暑常伴隨著許多症狀，例如昏眩（dizziness），嚴重頭痛（severe headache）、疲倦（tiredness）、噁心（nausea）、嘔吐（vomit）、肌肉痙攣（muscle cramp）…等，如果身旁友人全身發熱，卻沒有出汗（no sweating），但說出意識不清的話，則需要儘快就醫，這些單字在向醫生描述症狀時都非常實用。 sweat「流汗」可當動詞和名詞使用，但是口語上常聽到的no sweat 並不是「沒有出汗」，而是「沒問題、不費力」的意思。 We were covered in sweat after we finished an hour of Zumba. （跳完一個小時的尊巴舞後，我們汗流浹背。） A: Can you help me move the desk? （你可以幫我搬那張桌子嗎？） B: No sweat! （沒問題！） vomit (v)「嘔吐」的同義字是throw up，嘔吐前常有的噁心感可以用形容詞nauseous或sick to one’s stomach來表示。 “You could feel your heart rate increase rapidly without doing any
US Pesident Joe Biden signed into law a broad competition bill Tuesday last week that includes about US$52 billion to boost domestic semiconductor research and development, calling it a “once-in-a-generation investment in America itself.” “We need to make these chips here in America to bring down everyday costs and create jobs,” said Biden at a signing ceremony for the CHIPS and Science Act on the White House South Lawn, joined by executives from US semiconductor firms and congressional leaders. Biden said he had visited the US facility where Javelin missiles were made and said the bill would make the nation less reliant